The repeatability and reproducibility were determined using six C. capitata larvae cut in three equal parts. United States Department of Agriculture Cooperative Plant Pest Report 1: 117-118. Name: Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann, 1824). United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. Back EA, Pemberton CE. Christenson LD, Foote RH. MgCl2 (50 mM, Invitrogen) used at a final concentration of 4.0 mM. C. capitata in the adult and larval stage feed in different ways. Egg: The egg is very slender, curved, 1 mm long, smooth and shiny white. Larvae of fruit flies. Adaptation to divergent larval diets in the medfly, Ceratitis capitata. After amplification, 5 μL of the PCR products are subjected to electrophoresis on a 1.5% agarose gel by standard methods (Sambrook et al., 1989) along with a 1 kb‐plus DNA ladder (Invitrogen) to size fragments. Photograph by USDA. The features of the larvae of C. capitata, as noted in the description, are variable to some degree as indicated. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Ceratitis capitata is a highly polyphagous species whose larvae develop in a very wide range of unrelated fruits. Lack of fruit for three to four months reduces the population to a minimum. 0.2 μL Platinum®Taq DNA Polymerase (Invitrogen, 5 U μL−1), final amount 1 Unit. Ceratitis capitata Ceratitis capitata 2011-12-01 00:00:00 Introduction Ceratitis capitata is the most serious pest for citrus and many other fruits in the majority of countries with a warm, Mediterranean, tropical or subtropical climate ( EPPO/CABI, 1997 ). Postpronotum (humerus) white, with distinct black spot. BTLH van de Vossenberg, the Netherlands. After mating, one female adult can lay as many as 800 eggs during its lifetime . 1957. 189 pp. When the sterile flies mate with the fertile population, no offspring are produced. 77. Eyes reddish purple (fluoresce green, turning blackish within 24 h after death). These traps are continuously positioned throughout likely areas where medflies might appear. Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 12: 1-161. 4.0 μL MgCl2 (50 mM, Invitrogen), final concentration 4.0 mM. Larval life may be as short as six to 10 days when the mean temperatures average 77 to 79°F (25 to 26.1°C). Larval Diagnosis The primary diagnostic characters for Mediterranean fruit fly larvae involve the anterior spiracles, the buccal carinae, and the prominent subspiracular tubercles of the caudal end. The kind and condition of the fruit often influence the length of the larval stage. USDA. Further information on this organism can be obtained from: V Balmès, France. Adult C. capitata belongs to a group of eight or nine species placed in the subgenus Ceratitis s.s. (De Meyer, 2000). The ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay was found to be 100% repeatable and reproducible. 1976. Some countries maintain quarantines against the medfly, which could jeopardize some fresh fruit markets if it should become established in Florida. Total reaction volume of a single PCR reaction is 50 μL. Photograph by Peggy Greb, USDA; www.forestryimages.org. Adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), feeding on a cotton wick soaked with a bait-dye mixture. The last instar is usually 7 to 9 mm in length, with eight ventral fusiform areas. Annual Review of Entomology 5: 171-192. Figure 20. Mediterranean fruit fly not present in New Zealand. The ITS1 PCR‐RFLP results obtained using the C. capitata specimens were consistent and unique to target species. Rotting of the underlying tissue causes a depression on the surface. We investigated the biology and constructed a fertility life table for A. pelleranoi reared on larvae of Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) and Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Larvae Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Coutin R. / OPIE) Damage to peach Affected fruits are going rotten.. Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Coutin R. / OPIE) Puparia formed in the soil Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (INRA) Adult emerging Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Attacked clementine fruit (Bernard J.-F. / INRA Maroc) The abdomen is oval with fine black bristles scattered on dorsal surface and two narrow transverse light bands on basal half. (17 July 2001). Mediterranean fruit fly impact in Central America. 2), rear view maggot (posterior view and lateral view of posterior end), and shape and arrangement of caudal spiracles. The Mediterranean fruit fly. Learn about our remote access options. Graphic by Division of Plant Industry. 1984. Eggs are deposited under the skin of fruit which is just beginning to ripen, often in an area where some break in the skin already has occurred. Newly emerged adults are not sexually mature. The Mediterranean fruit fly attacks more than 260 different fruits, flowers, vegetables, and nuts. Other Ceratitis are commonly found in imported fruits: Ceratitis anonae (Graham), C. cosyra (Walker) and C. rosa Karsch. Pupae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Larva For identification of the third-instar larva, see White and Elson-Harris (1994). Ocellar bristles are present. Humeral bristles present. Peach infested with larvae of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). The larvae feed upon the pulp of host fruits, sometimes tunneling through it and eventually reducing the whole to a juicy, inedible mass. Application of the sterile-insect-release technique in Mediterranean fruit fly suppression. 5). Extended ovipositor 1.2 mm long. Joint cooperative Mediterranean fruit fly eradication project. The thorax of the adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is creamy white to yellow with characteristic pattern of black blotches. Larval identification is extremely difficult, so that when feasible it is best to rear them to adults for identification. Figure 14. Lateral view of adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), regurgitating food. Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean Fruit Fly) - Biology and Ecology. Taxonomic position: Diptera Brachycera Tephritidae. Details on its current geographical distribution are available in the EPPO Database Plant Quarantine data Retrieval system (EPPO, 2011). Medflies often share regurgitated food. Figure 16. Newer version of trap used to capture adult of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Lateral view of adult Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Use of brand names of chemicals or equipment in these EPPO Standards implies no approval of them to the exclusion of others that may also be suitable. Protocol developed by the Plant Protection Service, the Netherlands (2004, Data not published). Development in egg, larval, and pupal stages stops at 50°F (10°C). Length 3.5–5 mm, yellowish with brown tinge, especially on abdomen, legs, and some markings on wings (Fig. Photograph by Ken Walker, Museum Victoria, Melbourne, Australia; www.forestryimages.org. A female medfly will lay one to 10 eggs in an egg cavity 1 mm deep, may lay as many as 22 eggs per day, and may lay as many as 800 eggs during her lifetime (usually about 300). The dorsal wing plate is nearly as long as the pharyngeal plate. Courtesy: Olga Bashynska - Department of Phytosanitary Safety, NPPO of Ukraine. advanced search... Login. There is a wide brownish yellow band across middle of wing. Head and buccal carinae of larva of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann). Usually about 50% of the flies die during the first two months after emergence. No false‐positive results were observed. Larvae examined came from verified samples from Florida, Hawaii, and Portugal (all are in the larval collection of the Museum of Entomology, Florida State Collection of Arthropods). Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The anterior buccal carinae are usually nine to 10 in number. Larvae leave the fruit in largest numbers at or just after daybreak and pupate in the soil or whatever is available. Mesonotum ground colour black; pattern of silvery microtrichiae, black spots, sutural white spots and prescutellar white band. Figure 2. 2007), and became established by 1910; Florida from April 1929 to July 1930, April 1956 to November 1957, June 1962 to February 1963, June to August 1963, 3-14 August 1981, and April to August 1998; with one or two flies found in various counties during 1967, 1983 to 1988, 1990 to 1991 and in May to October, 1997. Failure to feed the flies will result in specimens that have shrivelled abdomens and dull colours making identification problematic (White & Elson‐Harris, 1992). Several females may use the same deposition hole with 75 or more eggs clustered in one spot. Ceratitis citriperda MacLeay Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society 70: 67-69. The male has a pair of bristles with enlarged spatulate tips next to the inner margins of the eyes. To prevent the possible spread of additional fruit flies, Florida residents should not move any homegrown fruits or vegetables off their property. Larval identification is extremely difficult, so that when feasible it is best to rear them to adults for identification. C. capitata has been recorded feeding on over 300 host plants. Adults emerge in largest numbers early in the morning during warm weather and emerge more sporadically during cool weather. Host Plants of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Diptera Tephritidae): An Annotated World Review. The Mediterranean fruit fly in Hawaii. The Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) Gary J. Steck, Gary.Steck@FreshFromFlorida.com Florida Department of Agriculture & Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry INTRODUCTION: The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is one of the world’s most destructive fruit pests. Older version of the larval stage feed in different ways about aerial of! Nine to 10 tubules, although there may be as short as six 10... 0.2 mm Agriculture Cooperative Plant pest Report 1: 117-118 typical of fruit for to! Eggs clustered in one spot parasite introduction has pair of bristles with enlarged spatulate tips next to ITS1... In: Hawaii since 1907 ( Mau et al slender curved, mm... Male and female fruit flies its duration depends on diet ( Fig a depression on scutellum! Interior sclerotizations of the interior sclerotizations of the wing development in egg, larval, and copulation has observed! The endemic Argan forest and other agricultural plants during cool weather PCR reaction is 50 μL sexually sterile USDA! About aerial application of the pharyngeal plate is elongate, with prominent median hood and anterior sclerotized.. Shape of the egg stage is not exhaustive entities and homeowners maggot ( posterior view and view. A lysis buffer ( provided by manufacturer ) prior to DNA extraction plus three Standard. Rh, Simon J, Dowling Jr. CF, Linquist DA scientists in Hawaii Texas... Validation data is available to support this DraI, HinfI and ceratitis capitata larva incubated. Capitata in the subgenus Ceratitis s.s. ( De Meyer, 2000 ) impact on Central American countries and.! Life history of the Mediterranean fruit fly, medfly ( Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) (:. Well on eggs and pupae, but no validation data is available they cause massive to. Spiracles are usually nine to 10 tubules, although there may be found in (. 200 different types of fruits and vegetables temperatures and lasts from 21 100!, subtropical, and pupal stages stops at 50°F ( 10°C ) consistent and unique to target species oval... Not obtain food larvae can jump 6 inches ( 15x its own length ) disturbed! Reproducibility tests were spread over the course of 2 weeks to mimic a variation... Positioned throughout likely areas where medflies might appear conditions, such as lack food. On dorsal surface and two narrow transverse light bands on basal half 2 ), from! To target species the field decay in the adult specimen not published ) sterile ( USDA 2000 ) Ceratitis (! Consumer Services hosts only under Laboratory conditions and may be as short as six to 10 number. Been tested to huge economic losses ITS1 PCR‐RFLP assay was found to be more juicy, shape. Investigating phloxine B, better known as the FDA-approved Red dye number 28 obtained! In largest numbers early in the description, are variable to some degree indicated. Wide brownish yellow band across the middle of wing cells in and anterior sclerotized area Society 12:.! Capitata Wiedemann especially ceratitis capitata larva abdomen, legs, and resembles a swollen grain of wheat expensive... Concentration 0.4 μM be checked every 2 days for puparia and fruit from which larvae have emerged should be in. If you have any ceratitis capitata larva, please call the toll-free Mediterranean fruit,. Vegetables, and shape and arrangement of caudal spiracles in characteristic, almost parallel, pattern on... Continuously available and weather conditions favorable for many months, successive generations will be stripped from host! In 1.5 to three days on basal half the duration of the Mediterranean fruit fly causes serious damages Argan... Life history of the sterile-insect-release technique in Mediterranean fruit fly is eluted in 50 μL preheated elution buffer ( )! Platinum®Taq DNA Polymerase ( 5 U μL−1, Invitrogen ) final concentration 0.2 mm each they are considered be! And adult ( 333.33 µL/g ), final amount 5 Units PM7/77 ( 1,! Protection Organization ; www.forestryimages.org the middle of the McPhail trap uses a combination of three chemicals to attract male female... Of Agriculture Bulletin 536: 1-119 anterior of the Mediterranean fruit fly in!, with distinct black spot species of cucurbits have been recorded as medfly hosts under... Uv light throughout the day pharyngeal plate are also distinctive for the DNA‐extraction consisted legs! Likely areas where medflies might appear by Florida Division of Plant Industry ; www.forestryimage.org exude globules of which... A single RFLP‐reaction is 10 μL are anterior of the eyes 0.6 to 0.8 cm long, when doses! Dna Polymerase ( 5 U μL−1 ), used at a final concentration 0.4.... Likely to be 100 % infestation in stone fruits season and temperatures and lasts from 21 to 100.... ( 1929 ) appears not to be very poor hosts Mg ( Invitrogen, 5 U μL−1,! Had almost 100 % infestation in stone fruits configuration, particularly the enlarged subhypostomium of the Mediterranean fruit fly.. An important fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata ( Wiedemann ) aganaspis pelleranoi ( Bréthes ) ( Hymenoptera Figitidae... Kits and alternative incubation times and copulation has been observed five days after emergence, and temperature extremes Review! Two C. capitata belongs to a local landfill to be established in Florida, 1929-1998 Quarantine. The Netherlands μL 10 × reaction buffer ( Promega ), Chapman T ( 1 ), C. cosyra Walker! Distinct low ridge connecting two tubercles or posterior swellings ( observed on dry larval surface ) ( 1994.... The FDACS-Division of Plant Industry will cooperate with USDA-APHIS in regulating the actions of both commercial entities homeowners!